Lumpy Skin Disease Virus

Lumpy skin disease is an infectious, highly contagious occasionally fatal disease of cattle characterized by nodules on the skin and other parts of the body, both internally and externally. Lumpy skin disease is most often found in southern and eastern Africa, but in the 1970s it extended northwest through into middle and northern Africa as well as the middle east.Lumpy skin disease appears epidemically or sporadically its incidence is highest in wet summer weather, but it may occur in winter because of global warming. Temperatures are not dropping low enough to remove the responsible vector population Since it is largely a vector-borne disease, environmental conditions need to be right for the disease to occur. There are many mechanisms of transmission in this diseaseTicks- R.appendiculatusBiting flies -Tabanid species and stomoxys calcitransSemenSalivaClinical signs:The incubation period is 4–14 days. Infected cattle develop primary viremia which presents with a fever. Lethargy, inappetence, and malaise are also common clinical signs seen at this stage of infection.  The nodules are well-circumscribed, round, slightly raised, and full thickness through the skin. Nodules may develop in the respiratory tract as well as along the digestive system on any of the epithelial surfaces. Distal limb swelling is also a common occurrence because of the impedance of lymphatic drainage from the distal limbs.In time, the nodules either regress or necrosis of the skin results in hard, raised areas known as sit-fasts. These areas slough to leave ulcers, which heal and scar.Diagnosis:A diagnosis of LSDV is often made on clinical signs. However, histopathology, […]