FLORKEM® (Florfenicol 300 mg / m2) in 100 & 250 ml verpakkingsgroottes. Florkem is ‘n breëspektrum-antibiotika in die fenikol-groep. Vir die behandeling van primêre of sekondêre bakteriële infeksies by beeste en skape om herstel te bespoedig.
Calf diarrhoea as a complex is caused by a number of different micro organisms including viruses, bacteria, and protozoa. Classification of different aetiological causes is best done by determining the age of the calf when the diarrhoea begins.
Week one of age:
E.coli infections also known as Colibacillosis or calf scours is a bacterial infection resulting in moderate to severe yellow pasty diarrhoea in one week old calves. The onset of dehydration and death occurs rapidly in such cases.
Diagnosis: A tentative diagnosis is often made from presenting clinical signs as well as the macroscopic appearance of the faeces as well as the age of the calf (yellow/grey colour). A definitive diagnosis is made on bacterial culture.
Treatment: Symptomatic treatment to maintain the calf’s hydration status is recommended. The use of antibiotics is warranted in these cases. Antimicrobial resistance is becoming an ever-growing problem, meaning our antibiotics need to be reserved as much as possible. Antibiotics in the Sulphonamide group (Maxisulf, Norotrim and Sulfatrim) as well as the Flouroquinolone group (Baytril) are often effective against E. coli infections.
However, it is always recommended to submit faecal samples to a registered laboratory for bacterial culture and antibiogram. The antibiogram will tell us which antibiotics work effectively against E. coli.
*It is important to note that Baytril is not a first line antimicrobial and must always be used sparingly.
Prevention: Prevention is always better than cure! Vaccination of Heifers (8 weeks and then 4 weeks prior to calving) as well as Cows (4 weeks prior to calving) with any registered vaccine against E. coli. This will ensure there are sufficient levels of maternal antibodies when the calf drinks colostrum.
Biosecurity: Isolate the affected calf and then so to prevent spread to the other calves. Regular cleaning with a registered disinfectant is recommended.
Rota and Corona Virus
Diarrhoea caused by Rota and/or Corona virus commonly affects calves within the first week of life. Clinical signs include mild to moderate diarrhoea, dehydration, and a reduced appetite. Calf Diarrhoea as a result of these viruses are associated with low mortalities.
Diagnosis: Diagnosis is done through viral isolation from a faecal sample at an accredited laboratory.
Treatment: Symptomatic treatment is recommended. Electrolytes (Replensol/Electrogaurd). Antibiotic use is not advised in these cases.
Biosecurity: Isolate the affected calf so to prevent spread to the other calves. Regular cleaning with a registered disinfectant is recommended.
Week two of age:
Diarrhoea caused by the protozoal organism normally occurs around two weeks of age. On visual examination, the diarrhoea appears grey and pasty and is associated with an extremely high mortality rate. Once Cryptosporidium parvum is present on a farm, eradication of the organism is difficult due to the organism’s persistence in the environment as well as the protozoa being able to replicate within the host itself resulting in autoinfection.
Disinfection: Disinfection and eradication of the organism has proven extremely difficult. Disinfection of calf crates/pens with bleach and boiling water has found some success.
Diagnosis: Faecal sample submission to a registered laboratory will confirm infection. Rapid test kits will be available soon to diagnose on the farm.
Treatment: Electrolytes (Replensol/Electrogaurd). Halocur® or Parafor® are the recommended drugs for the treatment of Cryptosporidium.
Prevention: No vaccine is currently available against Cryptosporidium. Biosecurity and maintaining good calf crate/pen hygiene is of the utmost importance in preventing disease outbreaks.
It is important to note than Cryptosporidium is a zoonotic disease.
Week three of age:
Calf diarrhoea caused by Salmonella spp. (Typhimurium and Dublin) commonly affects calves three weeks and older. The diarrhoea has a characteristic yellow colour with fresh blood and necrotic material present. The diarrhoea also has a really bad smell to it.
Diagnosis: A tentative diagnosis is often made from presenting clinical signs, the macroscopic appearance of the faeces as well as the age of the calf (yellow with blood and necrotic material present. A definitive diagnosis is made on bacterial culture.
Treatment: Symptomatic treatment to maintain the calf’s hydration status is recommended with electrolytes. The use of antibiotics is warranted in these cases. Antibiotics in the Sulphonamide group (Maxisulf, Norotrim and Sulfatrim) as well as the Flouroquinolone group (Baytril) are often effective against Salmonella infections. Some success has been seen with the Florfenicol group of antibiotics (Nuflor, Cyflor, Resflor and Florkem).
Prevention: Vaccination of Heifers (8 weeks and then 4 weeks prior to calving) as well as Cows (4 weeks prior to calving) with any registered vaccine against salmonellosis. This will ensure there are sufficient levels of maternal antibodies when the calf drinks colostrum.
Biosecurity: Isolation and separation of the affected calf will help prevent the spread of the infection amongst the other calves. Regular disinfection and cleaning is highly recommended.
Coccidiosis is caused by a protozoal organism Eimeria Bovis/ Eimeria Zuernii resulting in a haemorrhagic diarrhoea of calves older than three weeks of age. Coccidia infections are as a result of poor husbandry such as with calves living in dirty, wet calf crate.
Diagnosis: A tentative diagnosis is often made from the macroscopic appearance of the faeces as well as the age of the calf with fresh blood being present in the faeces. A definitive diagnosis is made on a faecal float to identify the coccidia oocysts. A Diff Quick stain of the faeces will also reveal the coccidia merozoite.
Treatment: Symptomatic treatment to maintain the calf’s hydration status is recommended with electrolytes. The use of antibiotics is occasionally warranted in these cases. Antibiotics in the Sulphonamide group (Maxisulf, Norotrim and Sulfatrim). No other antibiotics are effective against coccidia. Anticoccidials such as Baycox and Vecoxan are also effective.
Prevention: Regular disinfection and cleaning is highly recommended. Ensure hygiene is maintained and living spaces are clean and dry at all times.
It is important to note than Coccidia is a zoonotic disease and affects immunocompromised individuals.
Helpful tips to keep in mind!!
- Ensure calf maintains its hydration status. This can be done with supplemental electrolytes such as Electrogaurd and Replensol. Should commercial electrolytes not be available a home remedy of 1 teaspoon salt, 1 teaspoon lemon juice, 1 tablespoon bicarb and 1 tablespoon dextrose/glucose (No Sugar!) in two liters of water. Let the calf drink 1-2L depending on the severity of diarrhoea once daily.
- Do not withhold milk in a case of calf diarrhoea.
- Ensure each calf drinks colostrum 10% of its bodyweight (approximately 4L) within the first six hours of life!!!!!!
- As labour intensive as it is, TLC goes a long way in ensuring survival of the calf.
Thank you for your valued support!
Dr Jarred Morris
BVSc (cum laude)
Tel: 082 559 1941
If you are in need of BEF-TECT (3-day stiff-sickness) & CHLORTET 200G (25kg), we have in stock. Please contact our office at 087-237 9995 or email to email@example.com
BEF-TECT (3-day stiff-sickness)
BEF-TECT is an adjuvanted live attenuated Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) virus vaccine for the prophylactic immunization against the economically important disease of dairy cows, bulls, and beef herds.
Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF) is a viral disease of cattle and buffalo. Typically, affected animals are only sick for a few days, hence the alternative name – Three Day Sickness.
There is a sudden onset of fever- as high as 410C compared with the normal temperature of about 380C. The temperature returns to normal within 36 hours.
The first sign in milking cows is a sudden and severe drop in milk production. Cows in advanced pregnancy may abort. This is probably because of the fever, rather than a specific effect of the virus.
Animals stop eating and drinking and become depressed. They usually drool saliva, develop a stringy nasal discharge, and may have watery eyes.
CHLORTET 20 G – 25kg – (CTC)
For the treatment of respiratory and other infections caused by organisms susceptible to chlortetracycline in poultry, turkeys, pigs, calves and feedlot cattle.
Chlortetracycline 200 g/kg (as the stable chlortetracycline calcium complex).
Here are some questions that people are asking. We have created a FAQ group with DAFF (thanks to Dr. Marietta Bronkhorst for her help):
Is there a movement ban on animals?
There is no ban on the movement of animals in general, although it is advisable that movements should be restricted and discouraged as far as possible. The Gazette Notice does not prohibit the movement of animals. It prohibits the gathering of cloven hoofed animals, where there are two or more places of origin, and where the intention is to move the animals to two or more destinations, within a time period shorter than 28 days.
Are there any restrictions on the movement of animals from one farm to another?
The movement of animals between properties falls outside the scope of this Gazette Notice. The requirements that were applicable prior to the issuing of this notice are still applicable. There is no requirement for a government veterinary movement permit to be issued in terms of this Gazette.
If movements must take place, it is advised that a health declaration for movement is used, which requires veterinary inspection of the animals to be moved to ascertain that they are not showing clinical signs of Foot and Mouth Disease. This assists the seller and buyer of animals to limit potential spread of disease and subsequent liabilities.
How will live sales in the informal trade be regulated?
The emphasis must be on self-regulation and buyers must be made aware that they must only buy safe animals. Sellers of infected animals open themselves up to prosecution and civil lawsuits, should they cause the spread of FMD.
Is transport of animals allowed from farm to abattoir or from a feedlot to an abattoir?
Movement of animals from a farm or a feedlot directly to an abattoir is allowed, as the abattoir is an end-point destination from where the animals will not be distributed. Take note that it is illegal to move animals out of an abattoir facility based on the Meat Safety Act, 2000 (Act No. 40 of 2000).
Can an auction proceed if a single farmer’s livestock is auctioned off, with no external animals added, but with multiple buyers?
Yes, this is allowed since the animals will come from a single origin. The single origin farm must also comply with the requirements of the Gazette notice. The seller must declare and be able to prove, through auditable records, that no new animals were introduced onto the farm of origin for 28 days prior to movement to the auction. No other animals may be added to the auction property during the period when the seller’s animals are there.
Sometimes feedlots select heifers to sell to other farmers, so there is a mix of animals at the feedlot and not all go for slaughter. How will this practise be affected by the prohibition?
Feedlots that sell animals to other farms will be breaking the law unless all animals in the feedlot originate from one source, or if all animals in the feedlot have been on the farm for 28 days, according to the conditions of Scenarios above.
Joint statement of the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development and the FMD technical task team on the foot-and-mouth disease outbreak Limpopo – 4 December 2019
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries on the foot-and-mouth disease outbreak Limpopo
Progress has been reported consistently over the past four weeks since the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Molemole. To date, 11 commercial properties have been found to be infected and confirmed positive: Seven in Capricorn, two in Vhembe and two in Mopani district municipalities. There are an estimated 14 000 cattle on the infected properties, which include five feedlots and six commercial breeding farms. All affected properties have been linked directly or indirectly to cattle sold at auctions. Further follow-up investigation and sampling is still being conducted to determine the extent of the outbreak.
The Minister of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development gazetted a national ban on the gathering of cloven-hoofed animals, including livestock auctions, shows and similar activities. The gazette is available on the DAFF website https://www.daff.gov.za/daffweb3/Home/Foot-and-mouth
According to Section 11 of the Animal Diseases Act, 1984 (Act No. 35) it is the responsibility of “any owner or manager of land on which there are animals to take all reasonable steps to prevent the infection of the animals with any animal disease, or parasite and the spreading thereof from the relevant land or animals”.
Anyone spreading FMD through the movement of animals may, therefore, be held civilly and or criminally liable for such an offence.
All suspected and infected properties have been placed under quarantine and no livestock is allowed to move in, through or out of the affected properties. Immediate neighbouring properties have also been placed under quarantine. Quarantine on the suspected and neighbouring properties will be lifted as soon as it has been proven that all animals on these properties are free of FMD. The owners of infected properties have been given slaughter out options to facilitate depopulation.
As per the press release of 19 November 2019, all owners of livestock are encouraged to observe strict biosecurity measures on their premises. The biosecurity guidelines are available on the National Animal Health Forum website www.nahf.co.za.
It is important that all livestock owners familiarise themselves with the following measures to prevent their animals from being infected:
- Not moving high risk animals;
- Only buying animals from a proven source;
- Insisting on a veterinary attestation/health declaration to accompany any animals that are brought in.
Adherence to the above measures will assist government and farmers to resolve the situation. It is vital that all stakeholders act reasonably, responsibly and according to the law at all times.
JOINT STATEMENT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, LAND REFORM AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE LIVESTOCK INDUSTRY
14 November 2019
Progress: Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak – MOLEMOLE DISTRICT
On 1 November 2019, veterinary services were alerted to clinical signs suspected to be Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in a herd of cattle on a farm in the Molemole Local Municipality of Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. This farm is located in the previous FMD free zone of South Africa. Samples were collected and FMD was confirmed by the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Transboundary Animal Disease Programme.
FMD is a highly contagious viral disease that affects cattle, pigs (domestic and wild), sheep, goats, and other cloven-hoofed animals. Signs of disease in animals may include depressed animals, sores in the mouth of animals causing reluctance to eat, and lameness. The disease does not affect humans and it is safe to consume products of cloven-hoofed animals, such as meat and milk.
Monitoring Following the outbreak, the farm was quarantined. Currently monitoring of production facilities, feedlots and abattoirs is being conducted in Molemole District and adjacent areas.
International trade The Molemole-outbreak is adjacent to the Vhembe-outbreak of January 2019 and thus close monitoring and vigilance in the Limpopo Province enabled rapid detection of the incident. All control measures for the Limpopo Province are still in place.
A number of agreements were reached with trade partners to trade in safe commodities following the January outbreak; the department has sought assurances that these agreements still hold.
Temporary ban on auctions Live auctions in Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Gauteng and North West Provinces are suspended with immediate effect until further notice. Minister will gazette this in the next few days.
Advice to farmers
Farmers in the entire South Africa are advised to practice strict biosecurity measures. All movements of animals should be done under close veterinary supervision and movements should be restricted as far as possible. Farmers should seek assurances of the health status of any animals that they wish to bring onto their farms prior to such introductions. It is further advised that they obtain a veterinary health certificate from the herd of origin confirming that the herd was inspected and that the animals originated from an unaffected area.
Foot and Mouth Disease is mainly spread by the movement of infected animals. Uncontrolled movement could thus spread the disease over significant distance. All livestock keepers should remain vigilant and report any suspected case to their local state or private veterinarian.
Cooperation between all members of the farming community should ensure a rapid and effective resolution of this outbreak.
For more information contact:
Reggie Ngcobo – Media Liaison Officer
Mobile: 082 883 2458
The technical spokesperson on FMD is Dr Botlhe Modisane
Mobile: 063 693 0330